Author: D. Galayko
Kinetic energy is ubiquitous in the environment of embedded systems, where it may be present under different forms: vibrations, random motion, wind, etc. A part of this energy may be used for generation of electrical supply, in order to increase the autonomy of the embedded system. Recently, several transducing technologies have been considered to reduce the size of the kinetic energy harvesters. In addition to traditional piezoelectric, capacitive and magnetic electromechanical converters, new materials and techniques leverage performances of miniature harvesting devices: electret materials, triboelectric transducers, elastomers, piezo-electret devices, etc. Considerable advancement in the power management electronics has also recently been made.
The paper proposes a review of the state-of-the art of miniature kinetic energy harvesters, from the point of view of the devices, materials and conditioning electronics, and describes the evolution perspectives.