It is a known fact that the amount of power dissipated into heat during computation is becoming the main limitation toward the realization of new and more powerful computers. The discussion on the development of high performance computing initiative identified the reduction of energy dissipated as one of the two strategic challenges for the future in the field. On the other hand the realization of wireless micro sensors that can be deployed in numbers is presently hold by the gap between how much energy is available from portable sources (batteries and/or energy harvesting technologies) and how much energy is required for their functioning. For these reasons we believe that the next FET proactive workprogramme (2016-2017) should address this very point by challenging researchers to design, realize and test actual computing micro-devices that can be operated below the KT scale of energy. Proposals for novel information-carriers beyond electrons in semiconductors could be privileged, together with studies aimed at determining the impact of algorithms on energy consumption. This topic is very timely due to the increasing pressure of the semiconductor industry that is facing the wall of excess heat dissipation and to recent advances in theoretical and experimental physics where Landauer principle has been put under test and nanoscale energy measurement are demonstrated possible. (from the editor of ICT-Energy Letters).